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Piezoresponse/ Piezoforce Microscopy (PFM)

Piezoforce Microscopy (PFM) is a technique based on contact mode. PFM identifies the inverse piezoelectric effect of a sample by electrically stimulating the sample so the topographic response of the sample can be monitored by lock-in techniques. Amplitude and phase information show details such as the strength and direction of the polarization on the sample.